13 Available Nutrients in the Soil That Empower Plant Growth

13 Available Nutrients in the Soil That Empower Plant Growth

Nutrients in the soil are essential for the growth and health of plants. Soil provides a range of nutrients that are crucial for plant development. These nutrients are typically categorised into two groups: macronutrients and micronutrients.

As the soil season approaches, farmers, agronomists, and scientists are gearing up for crucial soil analyses that guide agricultural practices. Among the vital parameters examined is the concept of “available nutrients.” In this blog, we will delve into the meaning of available nutrients in the soil, why they matter, and how they impact crop growth and soil management.

Understanding Available Nutrients in the Soil:

Available nutrients in the soil refer to those essential elements that are readily accessible to plants in forms they can absorb and utilise for growth and development. These nutrients are critical because they serve as the primary source of nourishment for crops and directly influence their health and productivity.

Soil nutrient availability can vary depending on factors such as soil type, pH, organic matter content, and environmental conditions. Proper management of soil nutrients through fertilisation and soil testing is essential to ensure that plants receive the necessary nutrients for healthy growth and optimal crop production.

Nutrients mineral in Soil

1. Macronutrients

Nitrogen (N)

Nitrogen is a key component of chlorophyll, the green pigment responsible for photosynthesis. It is essential for overall plant growth, leaf development, and protein synthesis. Available nitrogen in soil is often in the form of nitrates (NO3-) or ammonium (NH4+).

Phosphorus (P)

Phosphorus is vital for root development, energy transfer within the plant, and flower and fruit formation. In soil, available phosphorus is commonly found as soluble phosphates (H2PO4- and HPO4^2-).

Potassium (K):

Potassium plays a crucial role in enzyme activation, osmotic regulation, and overall plant health. In soils, it is present as exchangeable cations (K+).

Calcium (Ca):

Calcium is important for cell wall structure and stability, and it also plays a role in cell division and nutrient uptake.

Magnesium (Mg):

Magnesium is a central component of the chlorophyll molecule, essential for photosynthesis.

Sulfur (S):

Sulfur is involved in the synthesis of certain amino acids and proteins.


2. Micronutrients:

These are nutrients that plants need in trace amounts, but they are still essential for plant health.

Iron (Fe):

Iron is necessary for chlorophyll production and is involved in energy transfer processes within the plant.

Manganese (Mn):

Manganese plays a role as a cofactor in photosynthesis, enzyme activation, and defence mechanisms against pathogens.

Zinc (Zn):

Zinc is important for enzyme activation, and it plays a role in overall plant growth and development.

Copper (Cu):

Copper is involved in various enzymatic reactions and helps with lignin formation in cell walls.

Boron (B):

Boron is essential for cell division, pollen formation, and sugar transport in plants.

Molybdenum (Mo):

Molybdenum is required for nitrogen fixation in legumes and other nitrogen metabolism processes.

Chlorine (Cl):

Chlorine is involved in photosynthesis and osmotic regulation.

Why Available Nutrients in the Soil Matter:

  1. Plant Nutrition: Available nutrients in the soil are the primary source of nourishment for crops. Understanding their availability helps determine if plants receive an adequate supply of essential elements.
  2. Fertiliser Application: Soil tests for available nutrients guide the application of fertilisers, ensuring that crops receive the right balance of nutrients for optimal growth.
  3. Environmental Impact: Proper management of available nutrients reduces the risk of nutrient runoff, which can contribute to water pollution and environmental damage.

Methods for Assessing Available Nutrients in the Soil:

  1. Soil Testing: Soil samples are collected from fields and analysed in laboratories to determine nutrient content. Various techniques, such as Mehlich-3 or Olsen extraction, are used to estimate available nutrient concentrations.
  2. Plant Tissue Analysis: By analysing plant tissues, one can assess the nutrient status of crops during the growing season. This helps adjust nutrient management practices in real-time.
  3. On-Site Sensors: Advances in technology have led to the development of on-site sensors that provide immediate nutrient status information, allowing for quick decision-making in the field.

FOR YOUR SOIL TESTING NEEDS-> Southern Scientific Services.


As the soil season approaches, understanding the concept of available nutrients in the soil is paramount for successful agriculture. These nutrients, primarily nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, are the lifeblood of crops, influencing their growth, yield, and overall health. Accurate assessment of available nutrients through soil testing and plant tissue analysis empowers farmers and agronomists to make informed decisions regarding fertiliser application and soil management, ultimately leading to improved crop productivity and sustainable agricultural practices. So, as you step into the soil season, remember the significance of available nutrients and their role in nurturing our crops and our planet.

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